Tetravalency of carbon;
Shapes of simple molecules - hybridization (s and p);
Classification of organic compounds based on functional groups: - C = C - , - C ? C - and those containing halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur; Homologous series; Isomerism - structural and stereoisomerism.
Nomenclature (Trivial and IUPAC)
Covalent bond fission: Homolytic and heterolytic: free radicals, carbocations and carbanions; stability of carbocations and free radicals, electrophiles and nucleophiles.
Electronic displacement in a covalent bond: Inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation.
Common types of organic reactions - Substitution, addition, elimination and rearrangement.
Hybridization of carbon
sp - in alkynes - triple bond
sp2 - in alkenes - double bond
sp3 - in alkanes
sigma and pi bonds
alkanes - all sigma bonds with hydrogen atoms or single bonds with carbon atoms
alkenes - one sigma and one pi bond in double bond, and all sigma bonds with hydrogen atoms or single bonds with carbon atoms
alkynes - one sigma and two pi bonds in triple bond, and all sigma bonds with hydrogen atoms or single bonds with carbon atoms
To be expanded
are in following blogs