AIEEE 2008 Syllabus
UNIT 28 PRINCIPLES RELATED TO PRACTICAL CHEMISTRY
► Detection of extra elements (N,S, halogens) in organic compounds; Detection of the following functional groups: hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic), carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone), carboxyl and amino groups in organic compounds.
► Chemistry involved in the preparation of the following:
Inorganic compounds: Mohr’s salt, potash alum.
Organic compounds: Acetanilide, p-nitroacetanilide, aniline yellow, iodoform.
► Chemistry involved in the titrimetric excercises - Acids bases and the use of indicators, oxalic-acid vs KMnO4, Mohr’s salt vs KMnO4.
► Chemical principles involved in the qualitative salt analysis:
Cations - Pb2+ , Cu2+, AI3+, Fe3+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH4+.
Anions- CO32-, S2-, SO42-, NO2-, NO3-, CI-, Br, I. (Insoluble salts excluded).
► Chemical principles involved in the following experiments:
1 Enthalpy of solution of CuSO4
2 Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid and strong base.
3 Preparation of lyophilic and lyophobic sols.
4 Kinetic study of reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature.
1.Lassaigne test is used for detecting N,S, halogens.
2.Sodium extract of the given compound is prepared first to do Lassaigne test.
3.Ferrous sulphate is used for nitrogen detection, acetic acid and lead acetate for detecting sulphur and NH4OH is used for detecting halogens.
4. Sodium test is used for detecting OH group
5. Ferric chloride test is used detecting phenolic group.
6. 2,4 dinitrophenylhydrazine test used to find the presence of carbonyl group.
7. Tollens reagent test is used for detecting aldehydic group.
8. If a carbonyl group is present, but aldehydic group is not detected, it means ketonic group is there.
9. Bicarbonate test will indicte carboxylic group -COOH
10. Isocyanide test will indicate presence of amine -NH2 group.