Sunday, January 20, 2008

AIEEE Chemistry UNIT 24 Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen

General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, basic character and identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines and their basic character.
Diazonium Salts: Importance in synthetic organic chemistry.

Amines are regarded as derivatives of ammonia in which one, two or all three hydrogen atoms are replaced by alkyl or aryl group.

NH3 - H = RNH2; (Primary amine) characteritic group NH2 amino
RNH2 - H = R2NH;(secondary amine) characteritic group NH imino
R2NH - H = R3N (tertiary amine) characteritic group N tert-nitrogen

The amines are classified as primary, secondary and tertiary according to one, two or three hydrogen atoms of ammonia are replaced by alkyl or aryl groups.

In addition, there is another class known as quaternary ammonium compounds. These compounds are regarded as derivatives of ammonium salts in which all the four hydrogen atoms are replaced by alkyl or aryl groups.

Nomenclature of amines


Aliphatic amines


Aromatic amines

Benzenamine - can also be written as amino benzene

Preparation of amines

1. From alkyl halides
2. From Nitro compounds
3.From nitriles (cyanides) and isonitriles (isocyanides)
4. From amides
5. From oximes
6. from aldehydes and ketones

Industrial preparation
1. from alcohols
2.from aniline

Physical properties

1. State and smell
2. B.P.

Chemical Properties
1. Reaction with water (Basic character of amines)
2. Reaction with acids
3. Reaction with metal ions
4. Alkylation
5. Acylation (reaction with acid chlorides and acid anhydrides)
6. Benzoylation
7. schiff's base formation
8. Oxidation
9. Carbalamine reaction
10. Reaction with nitrous acid
11. Reaction with Grignard reagent
12. Carbon disulphide
13. Carbonyl chloride
14. Ring substitution in aromatic amines
15. coupling of diazonium salts

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