Covalent Bond Fission
Tetravalency of carbon; Shapes of simple molecules - hybridization (s and p); Classification of organic compounds based on functional groups: - C = C - , - C ? C - and those containing halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur; Homologous series; Isomerism - structural and stereoisomerism.
Nomenclature (Trivial and IUPAC)
Covalent bond fission: Homolytic and heterolytic: free radicals, carbocations and carbanions; stability of carbocations and free radicals, electrophiles and nucleophiles.
Electronic displacement in a covalent bond: Inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation.
Common types of organic reactions - Substitution, addition, elimination and rearrangement.
Bond breaking is also known as bond fission.
1. Homolytic fission
2. Heterolytic fission
Heterolytic fission results in the formation of two different chemical species in the sense that one is a cation and the other an anion. Homolytic fission results in two electrically uncharged radicals.
The species produced during cleavage of bonds are called reaction intermediates. The important ones are:
1. Free radical: A free radical is an atom or group of atoms having an unpaired electron. Thee are produced during the homolytic fission of a covalent bond.
2. carbocation: It is a group of atoms which contain positively charged carbon having only six electrons. It is obtained by heterolytic fission of covalent bond involving carbon atoms.
3. Carbanion: It is a species containing a carbon atom carrying a negative charge. They are generated during heterolytic fission of covalent bonds containing carbon, when an atom linked to carbon goes without the bonding electrons.
4. carbene: The carbenes are reactive neutral species in which the carbon atom has six electrons in the valence shell out of which two are shared. The simplest carbene is methylene (:CH2). It is formed wbehg diazomethan is decomposed by the action of light.
CH2N2 --> :CH2 + N2
Types of attacing reagents
1. Free radicals
Typesof organic reactions
1. substitution reactions
2. Addition reactions
3. Elimination reactions
4. Rearrangement reactions
5. Condensation reactions
6. Isomerism reactions